At present, more than two-thirds of the total volume of international trade and 90% of the total volume of import and export cargo in China are all carried by sea: there are two main modes of maritime transport. Namely, liner shipping and chartering transport.
1, Ocean cargo transportation is the main way of international trade transportation.
Although the international ocean cargo transportation has the shortcomings of low speed and high risk, it has become the main mode of transportation in international trade because of its advantages such as large capacity, large volume, low freight, strong adaptability to goods, and unique geographical conditions in the world. 80%~90% of the total volume of import and export goods in China is transported by sea. With the rise and development of container transportation, it not only makes the transportation of goods develop towards the direction of collectivization and rationalization, but also saves the materials used for packing and transportation expenses, reduces the difference between goods and losses, guarantees the quality of transportation and shortens the transportation time. Thus, the transportation cost is reduced.
2, Ocean cargo transport is an important channel for the state to save foreign exchange payments and increase foreign exchange earnings.
Freight expenditure in China generally accounts for about 10% of the total import and export volume, especially for bulk goods. If we make full use of international trade terminology and strive for more ships, we can not only save foreign exchange payments, but also win more foreign exchange income. In particular, China's transport capacity into the international shipping market, actively carry out the transport of third countries, to create foreign exchange income for the country. Countries all over the world, especially coastal developing countries, attach great importance to the establishment of their own ocean-going fleet and the development of marine cargo transport. In some developed countries, the income from foreign exchange freight has become an important pillar of the national economy of these countries.
3, Developing the marine transport industry is conducive to improving the national industrial structure and the structure of international trade export commodities.
Marine transportation is realized by the practice of navigation, which is based on the shipbuilding industry, navigation technology and seafarers who master it. Shipbuilding industry is a comprehensive industry. Its development can also promote the development of iron and steel industry, Shipbuilding Equipment industry, electronic instruments and meters industry, and promote the improvement of the industrial structure of the whole country. In recent years, China has gradually become a ship exporting country from the original ship importing country, and is stepping into the ranks of big ship exporting countries. Due to the continuous development of navigation technology in China, the dispatched service of seafarers has attracted worldwide attention. With the development of ocean transportation industry, China's ocean shipping fleet has entered the top 10 in the world, which provides conditions for large-scale Shipbreaking industry in the future. It not only provides cheap raw materials for China's steel smelting, saves energy and imported ore consumption, but also can export scrap steel. It can be seen that the development of marine transport industry can not only improve the national industrial structure, but also improve the commodity structure in international trade.
4. Marine transport fleet is an important reserve force for national defense.
The fleet of oceangoing ships has always been used as a means of transportation in wartime. The United States, Britain and other countries call the merchant fleet "the fourth service except land, sea and air", and the former Soviet Union's merchant fleet is also called "shadow fleet" by Western countries. It can be seen that it plays a role in the victory or defeat of war. It is precisely because of the importance of maritime transport that all countries in the world attach great importance to maritime shipping, protect it through legislation, support and subsidize it financially, and give preferential treatment to cargo loading.